ACS happens when a disrupted atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary artery stimulates platelet aggregation and the formation of the thrombus. It is the thrombus that forms in the tissue that prevents myocardial perfusion. In the past researchers thought that it is primarily the narrowing the coronary artery that causes a reduction in blood flow. But more recent studies indicate it is the rapture of the … Continue reading Pathophysiology of Acute Coronary Syndrome
The Nazi Camps – An Architecture of Murder May 1945: With the end of World War II and the surrender of the Third Reich, the world discovered the full horror of Adolph Hitler’s genocidal system. Hitler’s Nazi death camps were meticulously designed to kill on a scale never before seen in the history of humanity. With the elimination of millions of Jewish and other non-Arian … Continue reading Inside Hitler’s Killing Machine
President Lungu’s Mind on Corruption Every reasonable citizen would expect a President of a country to be on higher moral ground, transparent, to have Integrity, accountable and having the interest of the nation at heart, at the minimum. It has become easy for anyone with a pulse to know the mind of the Zambian President, Edgar Chagwa Lungu, concerning corruption in the country without … Continue reading Corruption In Zambia
Crimes of War 2.0: What the Public Should Know (Revised and Expanded) Originally published in 1999, this A-to-Z guidebook of wartime atrocities has received worldwide acclaim and has been translated into eleven languages. Now substantially updated, with sixteen new entries, this concise guide to the broken rules of war remains unique and essential. More than 140 distinguished experts from the media, military, law, and human … Continue reading Crimes of War 2.0: What the Public Should Know
Once in a great while a book comes along that changes the way we see the world and helps to fuel a nationwide social movement. The New Jim Crow is such a book. Praised by Harvard Law professor Lani Guinier as “brave and bold,” this book directly challenges the notion that the election of Barack Obama signals a new era of colorblindness. With dazzling candor, legal … Continue reading The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness
Pulitzer Prize-finalist Stephen Kotkin has written the definitive biography of Joseph Stalin, from collectivization and the Great Terror to the conflict with Hitler’s Germany that is the signal event of modern world history In 1929, Joseph Stalin, having already achieved dictatorial power over the vast Soviet Empire, formally ordered the systematic conversion of the world’s largest peasant economy into “socialist modernity,” otherwise known as … Continue reading Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941
“For Michael Sandel, justice is not a spectator sport,” The Nation‘s reviewer of Justice remarked. In his acclaimed book―based on his legendary Harvard course―Sandel offers a rare education in thinking through the complicated issues and controversies we face in public life today. It has emerged as a most lucid and engaging guide for those who yearn for a more robust and thoughtful public discourse. “In terms, we … Continue reading Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do?
Anyone that takes multivitamins will be aware of the distinctive smell some of them have. This smell is usually due to thiamine, which like many sulfur-containing compounds is slightly malodorous. The primary dietary sources are pork, beef, liver, unrefined grain products, yeast products and nuts. Thiamine is converted into pyrophosphate, which acts as a coenzyme in some vital carbohydrate metabolic process. The metabolism of alcohol … Continue reading What is Vitamin B1
Zambia is a former British colony, it got its independence from Britain in 1964. After 1964 British born citizens started departing for South Africa fearing resentment. Most of the British people who lived in Zambia lived in the Copperbelt and most of them were miners. In my view, Zambia has still not recovered economically because of the lack of handover when the British people left. This, … Continue reading Aid in Zambia | How much aid is too much aid?
The female reproductive system is made up of the gonads, duct system and accessory glands. Produces garments and transports them for fertilisation, the process of birth and nurturing. When the oocyte is matured it is expelled from the ovaries and then travels down the fallopian tube. Eggs pass through the fallopian tube to the uterus where they are fertilised. They burrow into the walls of the … Continue reading Explainer| The Menstrual cycle
The police in Victoria at the start of the year admitted that Melbourne has a problem with African Sudanese street gangs. The police minister Lisa Neville prior to the admission defended their handling of youth crimes. This comes after the Federal government said, “African gang crime was out of control because of the lenient policies” Street gang’s crime has become priority issues for both sides of … Continue reading Analysis |Sudanese Australians and Crime
Photo credit Flickr South Sudan is almost the size of France, it is located in east-central Africa and is the world newest country. South Sudan has a population of 11 million and is one of the poorest nations on earth. It is underdeveloped and has a literacy rate of 27 per cent, it has 55 kilometres of paved roads, and oil exports what mainly drives … Continue reading Five Reasons that makes South Sudan one of the most dangerous places on Earth
Oesophagitis Can be caused by the reflux of acid from the stomach through the cardiac sphincter initially causing heartburn, but long-term reflux causes bleeding, ulcer formation and scarring. The scarring can cause the narrowing of the oesophageal passage which results in problems swallowing Hiatus Hernia Sometimes called a sliding hiatus hernia happens when part of the stomach slides through the diaphragmatic opening that … Continue reading Gastrointestinal Tract Pathologies
Virtually all human societies were once organized tribally, yet over time most developed new political institutions which included a central state that could keep the peace and uniform laws that applied to all citizens. Some went on to create governments that were accountable to their constituents. We take these institutions for granted, but they are absent or are unable to perform in many of today’s … Continue reading Book Recommendation | The Origins of Political Order
Executive Summary: Our client (Stockfans) owns and operates a shopping centre. The tenant at the client’s shopping centre, was concerned that the difficulties in accessing the food court via the fire doors were affecting his business, so the tenant opened one of the double doors and placed a wooden wedge under it. After the tenant noticed an increase in shoppers, he wedged open the other … Continue reading Case study|Negligence liability
Vitamins are a very diverse group of organic substances that are essential in the proper functioning of the metabolic process in the body. Many Vitamins especially those found in the B group function as coenzymes. This article will focus solely on the importance of vitamin A Vitamin A belongs to a group of chemicals called retinoids, after numerous chemical modification some retinoids are very … Continue reading The Importance of Vitamin A
Haemodynamic in biology is how blood flows through the cardiovascular system. Haemodynamics is also related to cardiac output (perfusion pressure differences at various parts of the system and peripheral vascular resistance (the different perimeters combining to affect the blood flow in each organ) Haemodynamic Disorders Maintenance of a healthy fluid balance is very important for survival. A large part of each cell is made of … Continue reading Haemodynamic Disorders| Thrombosis, Infarction and Shock
Press release 21 August 2018 Cancer Research UK news_lab-1.jpg Scientists have identified a key molecular player in a subtype of lung cancer which could lead to a new way to tackle the disease, according to research published in Nature Communications. “How LUSC develops is a bit of puzzle – until now our molecular understanding of this process was limited. Our research has revealed a major piece of … Continue reading Scientists discover first step towards finding a new, targeted lung cancer treatment
Originally posted on PsychoBabble:
In an effort to better understand the risk for first responders (police, medics, firefighters, military) one must first understand the foundation of risk prevention. There are three methods of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary preventions are the type of interventions that aim to prevent any risk of injury, illness, or disease before they’re at risk. One of the most commonly used… Continue reading First Responders are at highest risk for mental illness and substance abuse: why many don’t seek help and what we can do.
Acute Coronary Syndrome is a group of clinical symptoms compatible with myocardial ischemia and includes unstable angina, non-ST – segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) and ST elevation MI (STEMI). The manifestation of these symptoms often needs urgent medical care and hospitalisation (Kumar & Cannon, 2009). ACS happens as a result of decreased blood flow to the coronary arteries. Coronary arteries are arteries which transports blood into … Continue reading Acute Coronary Syndrome
Mental health presents legal issues when crimes are committed, especially when dealing with killing or murder. Under Commonwealth law in Australia, unsoundness of mind can be used as a defence to a criminal charge. Application of this law means that people who are charged with a crime cannot enter a plea or be found guilty because of a mental disorder.Instead, they become forensic patients. For the courts to determine mental … Continue reading Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System
Pathophysiology words and meaning Metaplasia this is where one cell type is converted to another usually because of continues cells injury Dysplasia happens when the cells of an organ or tissue changes in size, shape, and arrangement, cytological similar to cancer and may proceed it Congenital – these are diseases that are present at birth; some congenital disease are related to disease during pregnancy Hyperplasia– Refers … Continue reading Below is a List of some common words used in Pathophysiology
Defining words like Death and dying is currently a lot more complicated than in times past, this is largely due to advances in medicine. To help us understand the ethics surrounding assistive suicide, below are some general definitions. Death – There are several definitions of death, medically this is the cessation of all vital bodily functions, and there are stages, a person can be brain-dead but … Continue reading Should Medical Practitioners Help Patients Die?
A study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research shows that there is a 30 per cent increase in the risk of fractures after a gastric bypass operation. The study also discovered that falls increase after these operations as well. “Gastric bypass is a well-established method that has proven effective in reducing obesity, diabetes and mortality, so naturally our findings do not mean … Continue reading News Digest |Study finds Gastric Bypass increases risk of Bone Fractures and falls
photo credit ICTY. Rape as the spoil of war can be seen throughout history, sexual violence during the war is often committed with the intention of terrorising the population, break up families, and in some cases, it is done with the intention of changing the ethnic makeup of the next generation. Rape is also used to deliberately infect women with HIV or render women from some minority groups … Continue reading The complexities of Prosecuting War time Sexual Violence
photo credit, Zambian daily mail According to World Vision, Zambia has the highest rates of child marriages in the world, by the age of 18, 42% of the women between the age of 20-24 years were married. Currently, Zambia is ranked 16th among countries with the highest rates of child marriages in the world. The current marriage act has established a legal age for marriage, and … Continue reading WHY DOES CHILD MARRIAGE HAPPEN?
Proteus syndrome Commonly known as elephant man syndrome, Proteus syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by an overgrowth of bones, skin, and tissue. The organs affected grow un-proportional. The condition is named after a Greek sea-god Proteus known to change its shape. Proteus syndrome was first described by Drs Samia Temtamy, and John Rogers, Dr. Michael Cohan letter described it in 1979. In … Continue reading Rare Conditions |Proteus Syndrome
Main points The technology capitalized on sugars responsiveness to properties of boronic acid. They created a synthetic polymer gel – based insulin delivery device with a single catheter. The catheter exhibits an artificial pancreas like function inside the body Subcut implantation of the device in healthy and diabetic mice creates a closed loop system that is composed of a continuous glucose sensing and skin layer … Continue reading “Smart Synthetic gel” provides glucose-responsive insulin delivery in diabetic mice
Organic meat is grown without pesticides but there is little nutritional difference. Jez Timms Leah Dowling, Swinburne University of Technology and Louise Dunn, Swinburne University of Technology Red meat is an excellent source of protein and essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fats, which are are linked to heart and brain health. But while a small quantity of lean meat may … Continue reading Organic, grass fed and hormone-free: does this make red meat any healthier
The Statistics Methamphetamines numbers have tripled in the past five years, from about 90,000 to 268,000 regular and dependent methamphetamine users The result of the study was based on the number of people seeking treatment The number of users between the age of 15 and 24 has more than doubled from 21,000 regular users to 59,000 regular users Accidental deaths involving Meth have increased sharply since 2010, … Continue reading A closer look at Drug Addictions and Suicide in Perth
Breast Ironing is a practice performed by a mother, the breast of a girl going through puberty is pounded using tools such as spatulas, grinding stones, hot stones, and hammers. This is done to delay the girl’s development and to protect them from rape and other unwanted male attention. It is estimated that one in four girls in Cameroon suffer because of breast ironing. And while the practice … Continue reading Traditional Practices that have to stop | Breast Ironing
Patterns of thinking, feeling or behaviour that are persistent across time and situation.The result of the genetic template and outside influences. Expression of individuals characterise lifestyle methods and relating to others. Relates to personal identity and traits People with personality disorders perceive the world from a different perspective than most people Personality disorders are maladaptive patterns of thinking feeling and behaviours that are expressed in lifestyle … Continue reading Classification of Personality Disorders
The word malignant, when applied to hypertension, describes a syndrome in which organ malfunction and damage to the tissue happens in widespread areas of the body. If malignant hypertension is not treated aggressively, it can progress to a catastrophic event that nearly always has a fatal outcome (Oczek, 1976). Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure, there are a number of factors that contribute … Continue reading Malignant Hypertension
There are four main components of the conducting system of the heart, these are the SA node, AV node, the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibres. Also, we have subcomponents called the tracts and branches, each of these components have specialised cells that are able to conduct electrical impulses. Sinoatrial Node ( SA node) This is the first primary pacemaker of the heart and … Continue reading The Cardiac Conduction System
The three physiological functions that are responsible for adequate tissue and cellular oxygenation are: Pulmonary gas exchange Oxygen delivery Oxygen consumption The respiratory system helps gas exchange through the process of ventilation, diffusion and perfusion for the uptake of oxygen and helps with the removal of carbon dioxide from the body. Functionally the respiratory system consists of the functional zones and the conducting zones, namely … Continue reading The Explainer | How does the Body Controls Breathing?
The human circulatory system is a two-part system, whose purpose is bringing blood rich in oxygen to the tissue and the body. When the heart contracts it pushes the blood out into two significant loops or cycle. In the systemic loop, the blood circulates into the blood system, bringing oxygen to all the organs, and tissues and collecting carbon dioxide waste. In the pulmonary circuit, … Continue reading The Explainer | Types of Heart Failure
Loneliness is thought to affect nine million people in the UK. It is estimated that around 200,00 older adults have not had a conversation with a friend or relative in over a month. About half of people aged 75 and over live alone, and 85% of young disabled adults feel lonely, and many can go day and even weeks without any social interaction. A third … Continue reading Analysis | Why Loneliness is Killing You
Compare the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system The sympathetic nervous system primary process is to stimulate the flight or fight response. It is consistent at the basic levels to maintain homeostasis; it is thought to be complementary to the parasympathetic nervous system. There are two types of neurons that are responsible for the sympathetic nervous system we have the preganglionic and postganglionic. The shorter … Continue reading The Nervous system | Questions and Answers
Female circumcision or FGM is an ancient tradition that was and is still being practised in many parts of Africa, it is a non-therapeutic surgical modification of the Vagina (Yirga, Kassa, Gebremichael, & Aro, 2012). For a very long time, the Maasai people in Kenya, Tanzania, and parts of Nigeria have been circumcising women just to prevent them from enjoying sex. Other reasons given for supporting FGM … Continue reading Traditional Practices that have to Stop | Female Genital Mutilation
The rule in medicine is that for a patient to agree to any medical treatment or care the patient has to be well-informed. The doctors or the nurses in charge of providing care should not withhold any information that could change the mind of the patient. As this could be grounds for a negligence lawsuit. For example Rodgers V Whitaker, this is a case where Maree … Continue reading The complexities of Information and Consent in Health
Figures from 2012, show there were 961 thousand single parent homes, which is 15% of the Australian population. About 67% of them had dependants living with them, of the 961 single-parent families, 780 where single mothers making up the majority of the single parent population. In the United States, the prevalence of single mothers is partly due to the growing trend of children born outside marriage. Figures … Continue reading Effects of Fatherlessness on Children’s Development
In Australia, the average age as of 2016 is 37 years and this number is expected to rise over the next few decades. The average life expectancy in Australia is 82 years, in the UK it is 81 and USA it is 78 years. The World Health Organisation estimates that the number of people aged 65 and older is expected to reach 1.5 billion by 2050. With … Continue reading The Impact of the ageing population on the Health care System
A new study published on the 23rd of may 2018 in Sciencedaily.com indicates that exercise and in particular weight-bearing leg exercises send signals to the brain that are important for the production of healthy neural cells. The results of the study have wide-ranging implication in the way we study the brain the nervous system and muscles. According to the researchers, the results of the study … Continue reading Weight-bearing leg exercises send signals to the brain that are important for the production of Healthy Neural cells | Study Finds
The Male reproductive system has four regions – gonads duct system, accessory glands and the penis. The gonads are the testes, this is the site for sperm formation (spermatogenesis). The testis is located outside the body in the scrotum. Embryological the testes develop within the abdomen and usually descend about seven months during the foetal development and if they do not descend a condition called … Continue reading Homer Simpson’s Guide to The Male Reproductive System
MITOSIS Growth and repair, the cells in adults that don’t undergo mitosis are NEURONS and the sperms and the ova. Most of the time the cells are in interphase where DNA is uncoiled and is known as chromatin. Mitosis and meiosis are a continuous process Two daughter cells that are identical The first stage of MITOSIS is the duplication of the DNA genetic material, and … Continue reading STAGES OF MITOSIS AND MIOSIS
Any injury that causes the cells to die will elicit and inflammatory response. This is to remove the debris of the dead cells and the source of the injury. Inflammation can be acute or chronic, but whatever type, phagocytic cells and blood proteins move to the area of infection. The response is dependant on both vasoactive and chemotactic messengers from the site of injury, and these … Continue reading Repair, Healing and Regenaration of cells.
Delirium is defined as a sudden severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function that happen with physical and mental illness. It is a clinical syndrome or a set of symptoms and not a disease. It is one of the oldest forms of mental disorder that has been known in medical history. Studies indicate that 32-67% of delirious patients go into hospital undiagnosed. Delirium can be … Continue reading Is it Delirium or is it Dementia?
A study published in the journal of biological psychiatry has reviewed unique genetic changes in the brain reward pathways in brains associated with cocaine use. This includes mice brains of first time users, mice withdrawing from the drug and mice being re-exposed to the drug after not using for a period of time. The findings of the study provide unique insight into how cocaine affects … Continue reading Cocaine use alters gene expression in brain reward circuits study finds
Number-one New York Times best seller The incredible true story of survival and salvation that is the basis for two major motion pictures: 2014’s Unbroken and the upcoming Unbroken: Path to Redemption. On a May afternoon in 1943, an Army Air Forces bomber crashed into the Pacific Ocean and disappeared, leaving only a spray of debris and a slick of oil, gasoline, and blood. Then, on the ocean surface, … Continue reading Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption
For decades, doctors have been prescribing low-dose aspirin for healthy people over the age of 70. from shutterstock.com John McNeil, Monash University Taking low-dose aspirin daily doesn’t preserve good health or delay the onset of disability or dementia in healthy older people. This was one finding from our seven-year study that included more than 19,000 older people from Australia and the US. We also … Continue reading Daily low-dose aspirin doesn’t reduce heart-attack risk in healthy people