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The Ever Changing Role of Nurses in the Healthcare system

Nurses make up the largest health care profession in Australia, unlike other professions the proportion of nurses to population is consistent across Australia. The capacity of practice for nurses tends to vary depending on the location. The first section of the paper will discuss the ever-changing role a Nurse in the health care system, the focus will be put on the role of a Nurse … Continue reading The Ever Changing Role of Nurses in the Healthcare system

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Explainer | What is Anthrax and why is it dangerous?

Anthrax Anthrax is an infection that is caused by the gram-positive bacteria called Bacillus Anthracis. Anthrax can either be cutaneous, gastrointestinal or inhalation. History Anthrax was known by the names wool sorters and rag-pickers disease in 1800. This was because workers used to contract the disease through bacterial spores present in wool or fabric fibres. Spores are small thick-walled in the dormant stage of some … Continue reading Explainer | What is Anthrax and why is it dangerous?

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The Human Condition | Massacre, Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing and the Limits of International Law

Genocide is the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular nation or a tribe. Genocide was first recognised as a crime under international law in 1946. The United Nations in 1948 Codified Genocide as an independent crime. On the other hand, Ethnic cleansing according to UN definition is the “purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove … Continue reading The Human Condition | Massacre, Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing and the Limits of International Law

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The Libyan Slave Trade | What we Know

The Libyan Slave Trade | What we Know What has caused the Slave trade? Several factors are said to have contributed to people smuggling/slave trade in Libya. Firstly, the splintered Libyan government, this was largely caused by the overthrow of Gaddafi and not having a proper leader and government to replace him. The result has been no rule of law, because the government is too … Continue reading The Libyan Slave Trade | What we Know

The Archetypes and The Collective Unconscious (Collected Works of C.G. Jung Vol.9 Part 1) Paperback – August 1, 1981

Essays which state the fundamentals of Jung’s psychological system: “On the Psychology of the Unconscious” and “The Relations Between the Ego and the Unconscious,” with their original versions in an appendix. Continue reading The Archetypes and The Collective Unconscious (Collected Works of C.G. Jung Vol.9 Part 1) Paperback – August 1, 1981

Why inability to cope with uncertainty may cause mental health problems

Yuri Zvezdny/shutterstock Benjamin Rosser, Liverpool John Moores University Not knowing is an uncomfortable experience. As human beings, we are naturally curious. We seek to understand, predict and control – it helps us learn and it keeps us safe. Uncertainty can feel dangerous because we cannot predict with complete confidence what will happen. As a result, both our hearts and minds may race. While it is … Continue reading Why inability to cope with uncertainty may cause mental health problems

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Fluid and Nutritional Imbalance in Children

Fluid and Nutritional imbalance in children and young people Children have a higher metabolism so they need more calories and fluid for growth The intestinal tract in children is larger per body weight compared to adults. Gastric acid secretion reaches adult levels by 10 years of age. Infants have a short oesophagus At three months pancreatic juice contains low levels of lipase Nutritional assessments Is … Continue reading Fluid and Nutritional Imbalance in Children

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Haemodynamic disorders, Thrombosis and Shock

Haemodynamic disorders, Thrombosis and Shock Haemodynamic in biology is how blood flows through the cardiovascular system Haemodynamic is also related to cardiac output (perfusion pressure differences at various parts of the system and peripheral vascular resistance (the different perimeters combining to affect the blood flow in each organ) Haemodynamic disorders Maintenance of a normal fluid balance is very important for survival. A large part of … Continue reading Haemodynamic disorders, Thrombosis and Shock

The five stages of grief don’t come in fixed steps – everyone feels differently

  Grief is an individualised process. Toa Heftiba/Unsplash Nick Haslam, University of Melbourne Grief can seem desolate for those in the thick of it who often feel unable to imagine a way out of their suffering. But, as time passes, the pain usually dampens or becomes more fleeting. Understanding the normal trajectory of grief matters for the person experiencing the grief and those treating them. … Continue reading The five stages of grief don’t come in fixed steps – everyone feels differently

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The Russian Revolution 4th Edition

The Russian Revolution had a decisive impact on the history of the twentieth century. In the years following the collapse of the Soviet regime and the opening of its archives, it has become possible to step back and see the full picture. Starting with an overview of the roots of the revolution, Fitzpatrick takes the story from 1917, through Stalin’s “revolution from above”, to the … Continue reading The Russian Revolution 4th Edition

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Case Study| Type 1 Diabetes

  There are an estimated 1.2 million people, living with diabetes and 85 per cent of them have type two, while the other 13 per cent have type 1 (Australian Government Department of Health, 2016). Genetics play a big part in the development of type 1 diabetes, which is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Destruction … Continue reading Case Study| Type 1 Diabetes

Five lifestyle changes to enhance your mood and mental health

  Getting a good dose of nature can boost your mental health. Marion Michelle Jerome Sarris, Western Sydney University and Joe Firth, Western Sydney University When someone is diagnosed with a mental health disorder such as depression or anxiety, first line treatments usually include psychological therapies and medication. What’s not always discussed are the changeable lifestyle factors that influence our mental health. Even those who … Continue reading Five lifestyle changes to enhance your mood and mental health

Explainer: what is Helicobacter pylori?

  Helicobacter pylori normally infect the stomachs of children where they can stay forever, if undetected. Tatiana Shepeleva/Shutterstock Phil Sutton, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute In 1982, two Australians – Robin Warren and Barry Marshall – presented their first observations of strange bacteria living in the human stomach. They went on to propose that these bacteria caused a common condition called gastritis, which is essentially inflammation … Continue reading Explainer: what is Helicobacter pylori?

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Back Alley Abortions in Zambia

Zambia is a landlocked country located in the southern part of Africa. Since its independence, Zambia has remained peaceful. Zambia despite its liberal education has remained a Christian nation. In government schools, students are taught about every religion including Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam, students are also taught Christianity in a factual, unemotional non- evangelistic way. The interesting thing is religious education is not compulsory when you consider the fact … Continue reading Back Alley Abortions in Zambia

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Macrominerals| Calcium

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, It is the major ingredient in the inorganic component of the bone. In the remainder of the body, it takes part in various biochemical reactions. These mechanisms include the clotting process, neural transmission and muscular contraction including the cardiac muscle. It is however essential that the levels of calcium in the body are controlled. Too much … Continue reading Macrominerals| Calcium

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Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind

  Official U.S. edition with full color illustrations throughout. #1 New York Times Bestseller The Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg,  now available as a beautifully packaged paperback From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what … Continue reading Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind

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The Sonic Hedgehog Gene

  The sonic hedgehog gene is the human form of the hedgehog superfamily of inductive molecules that play a role in the development of the embryo. The action of the hedgehog gene was first observed in the Drosophila, recent studies have found members of the gene in metazoan, sea urchin, leech, and beetle (Sudhir bar 1995). This is according to an experiment that was done … Continue reading The Sonic Hedgehog Gene

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Pathophysiology of Acute Coronary Syndrome

ACS happens when a disrupted atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary artery stimulates platelet aggregation and the formation of the thrombus. It is the thrombus that forms in the tissue that prevents myocardial perfusion. In the past researchers thought that it is primarily the narrowing the coronary artery that causes a reduction in blood flow. But more recent studies indicate it is the rapture of the … Continue reading Pathophysiology of Acute Coronary Syndrome

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Inside Hitler’s Killing Machine

The Nazi Camps – An Architecture of Murder May 1945: With the end of World War II and the surrender of the Third Reich, the world discovered the full horror of Adolph Hitler’s genocidal system. Hitler’s Nazi death camps were meticulously designed to kill on a scale never before seen in the history of humanity. With the elimination of millions of Jewish and other non-Arian … Continue reading Inside Hitler’s Killing Machine

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Corruption In Zambia

  President Lungu’s Mind on Corruption Every reasonable citizen would expect a President of a country to be on higher moral ground, transparent, to have Integrity, accountable and having the interest of the nation at heart, at the minimum. It has become easy for anyone with a pulse to know the mind of the Zambian President, Edgar Chagwa Lungu, concerning corruption in the country without … Continue reading Corruption In Zambia

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Crimes of War 2.0: What the Public Should Know

Crimes of War 2.0: What the Public Should Know (Revised and Expanded) Originally published in 1999, this A-to-Z guidebook of wartime atrocities has received worldwide acclaim and has been translated into eleven languages. Now substantially updated, with sixteen new entries, this concise guide to the broken rules of war remains unique and essential. More than 140 distinguished experts from the media, military, law, and human … Continue reading Crimes of War 2.0: What the Public Should Know

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The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness

  Once in a great while a book comes along that changes the way we see the world and helps to fuel a nationwide social movement. The New Jim Crow is such a book. Praised by Harvard Law professor Lani Guinier as “brave and bold,” this book directly challenges the notion that the election of Barack Obama signals a new era of colorblindness. With dazzling candor, legal … Continue reading The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness

Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941

  Pulitzer Prize-finalist Stephen Kotkin has written the definitive biography of Joseph Stalin, from collectivization and the Great Terror to the conflict with Hitler’s Germany that is the signal event of modern world history In 1929, Joseph Stalin, having already achieved dictatorial power over the vast Soviet Empire, formally ordered the systematic conversion of the world’s largest peasant economy into “socialist modernity,” otherwise known as … Continue reading Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941

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Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do?

  “For Michael Sandel, justice is not a spectator sport,” The Nation‘s reviewer of Justice remarked. In his acclaimed book―based on his legendary Harvard course―Sandel offers a rare education in thinking through the complicated issues and controversies we face in public life today. It has emerged as a most lucid and engaging guide for those who yearn for a more robust and thoughtful public discourse. “In terms, we … Continue reading Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do?

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What is Vitamin B1

Anyone that takes multivitamins will be aware of the distinctive smell some of them have. This smell is usually due to thiamine, which like many sulfur-containing compounds is slightly malodorous. The primary dietary sources are pork, beef, liver, unrefined grain products, yeast products and nuts. Thiamine is converted into pyrophosphate, which acts as a coenzyme in some vital carbohydrate metabolic process. The metabolism of alcohol … Continue reading What is Vitamin B1

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Aid in Zambia | How much aid is too much aid?

  Zambia is a former British colony, it got its independence from Britain in 1964. After 1964 British born citizens started departing for South Africa fearing resentment. Most of the British people who lived in Zambia lived in the Copperbelt and most of them were miners. In my view, Zambia has still not recovered economically because of the lack of handover when the British people left. This, … Continue reading Aid in Zambia | How much aid is too much aid?

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Explainer| The Menstrual cycle

The female reproductive system is made up of the gonads, duct system and accessory glands. Produces garments and transports them for fertilisation, the process of birth and nurturing. When the oocyte is matured it is expelled from the ovaries and then travels down the fallopian tube. Eggs pass through the fallopian tube to the uterus where they are fertilised. They burrow into the walls of the … Continue reading Explainer| The Menstrual cycle

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Analysis |Sudanese Australians and Crime

The police in Victoria at the start of the year admitted that Melbourne has a problem with African Sudanese street gangs. The police minister Lisa Neville prior to the admission defended their handling of youth crimes. This comes after the Federal government said, “African gang crime was out of control because of the lenient policies” Street gang’s crime has become priority issues for both sides of … Continue reading Analysis |Sudanese Australians and Crime

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Five Reasons that makes South Sudan one of the most dangerous places on Earth

Photo credit Flickr South Sudan is almost the size of France, it is located in east-central  Africa and is the world newest country. South Sudan has a population of 11 million and is one of the poorest nations on earth. It is underdeveloped and has a literacy rate of 27 per cent, it has 55 kilometres of paved roads, and oil exports what mainly drives … Continue reading Five Reasons that makes South Sudan one of the most dangerous places on Earth

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Gastrointestinal Tract Pathologies

    Oesophagitis Can be caused by the reflux of acid from the stomach through the cardiac sphincter initially causing heartburn, but long-term reflux causes bleeding, ulcer formation and scarring. The scarring can cause the narrowing of the oesophageal passage which results in problems swallowing Hiatus Hernia Sometimes called a sliding hiatus hernia happens when part of the stomach slides through the diaphragmatic opening that … Continue reading Gastrointestinal Tract Pathologies

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Book Recommendation | The Origins of Political Order

Virtually all human societies were once organized tribally, yet over time most developed new political institutions which included a central state that could keep the peace and uniform laws that applied to all citizens. Some went on to create governments that were accountable to their constituents. We take these institutions for granted, but they are absent or are unable to perform in many of today’s … Continue reading Book Recommendation | The Origins of Political Order

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Case study|Negligence liability

Executive Summary: Our client (Stockfans) owns and operates a shopping centre. The tenant at the client’s shopping centre, was concerned that the difficulties in accessing the food court via the fire doors were affecting his business, so the tenant opened one of the double doors and placed a wooden wedge under it. After the tenant noticed an increase in shoppers, he wedged open the other … Continue reading Case study|Negligence liability

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The Importance of Vitamin A

  Vitamins are a very diverse group of organic substances that are essential in the proper functioning of the metabolic process in the body. Many Vitamins especially those found in the B group function as coenzymes. This article will focus solely on the importance of vitamin A Vitamin A belongs to a group of chemicals called retinoids, after numerous chemical modification some retinoids are very … Continue reading The Importance of Vitamin A

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Haemodynamic Disorders| Thrombosis, Infarction and Shock

Haemodynamic in biology is how blood flows through the cardiovascular system. Haemodynamics is also related to cardiac output (perfusion pressure differences at various parts of the system and peripheral vascular resistance (the different perimeters combining to affect the blood flow in each organ) Haemodynamic Disorders Maintenance of a healthy fluid balance is very important for survival. A large part of each cell is made of … Continue reading Haemodynamic Disorders| Thrombosis, Infarction and Shock

Scientists discover first step towards finding a new, targeted lung cancer treatment

  Press release 21 August 2018 Cancer Research UK news_lab-1.jpg Scientists have identified a key molecular player in a subtype of lung cancer which could lead to a new way to tackle the disease, according to research published in Nature Communications. “How LUSC develops is a bit of puzzle – until now our molecular understanding of this process was limited. Our research has revealed a major piece of … Continue reading Scientists discover first step towards finding a new, targeted lung cancer treatment

First Responders are at highest risk for mental illness and substance abuse: why many don’t seek help and what we can do.

Originally posted on PsychoBabble:
In an effort to better understand the risk for first responders (police, medics, firefighters, military) one must first understand the foundation of risk prevention. There are three methods of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary preventions are the type of interventions that aim to prevent any risk of injury, illness, or disease before they’re at risk. One of the most commonly used… Continue reading First Responders are at highest risk for mental illness and substance abuse: why many don’t seek help and what we can do.

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Acute Coronary Syndrome

Acute Coronary Syndrome is a group of clinical symptoms compatible with myocardial ischemia and includes unstable angina, non-ST – segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) and ST elevation MI (STEMI). The manifestation of these symptoms often needs urgent medical care and hospitalisation (Kumar & Cannon, 2009). ACS happens as a result of decreased blood flow to the coronary arteries. Coronary arteries are arteries which transports blood into … Continue reading Acute Coronary Syndrome

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Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System

Mental health presents legal issues when crimes are committed, especially when dealing with killing or murder. Under Commonwealth law in Australia, unsoundness of mind can be used as a defence to a criminal charge. Application of this law means that people who are charged with a crime cannot enter a plea or be found guilty because of a mental disorder.Instead, they become forensic patients. For the courts to determine mental … Continue reading Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System

Below is a List of some common words used in Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology words and meaning Metaplasia this is where one cell type is converted to another usually because of continues cells injury Dysplasia happens when the cells of an organ or tissue changes in size, shape, and arrangement, cytological similar to cancer and may proceed it Congenital – these are diseases that are present at birth; some congenital disease are related to disease during pregnancy Hyperplasia– Refers … Continue reading Below is a List of some common words used in Pathophysiology

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Should Medical Practitioners Help Patients Die?

 Defining words like Death and dying is currently a lot more complicated than in times past, this is largely due to advances in medicine. To help us understand the ethics surrounding assistive suicide, below are some general definitions. Death –  There are several definitions of death, medically this is the cessation of all vital bodily functions, and there are stages, a person can be brain-dead but … Continue reading Should Medical Practitioners Help Patients Die?

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News Digest |Study finds Gastric Bypass increases risk of Bone Fractures and falls

A study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research shows that there is a 30 per cent increase in the risk of fractures after a gastric bypass operation. The study also discovered that falls increase after these operations as well. “Gastric bypass is a well-established method that has proven effective in reducing obesity, diabetes and mortality, so naturally our findings do not mean … Continue reading News Digest |Study finds Gastric Bypass increases risk of Bone Fractures and falls

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The complexities of Prosecuting War time Sexual Violence

photo credit ICTY. Rape as the spoil of war can be seen throughout history, sexual violence during the war is often committed with the intention of terrorising the population, break up families, and in some cases, it is done with the intention of changing the ethnic makeup of the next generation. Rape is also used to deliberately infect women with HIV or render women from some minority groups … Continue reading The complexities of Prosecuting War time Sexual Violence

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WHY DOES CHILD MARRIAGE HAPPEN?

photo credit, Zambian daily mail According to World Vision, Zambia has the highest rates of child marriages in the world, by the age of 18, 42% of the women between the age of 20-24 years were married. Currently, Zambia is ranked 16th among countries with the highest rates of child marriages in the world. The current marriage act has established a legal age for marriage, and … Continue reading WHY DOES CHILD MARRIAGE HAPPEN?

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Rare Conditions |Proteus Syndrome 

Proteus syndrome  Commonly known as elephant man syndrome, Proteus syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by an overgrowth of bones, skin, and tissue. The organs affected grow un-proportional. The condition is named after a Greek sea-god Proteus known to change its shape. Proteus syndrome was first described by Drs Samia Temtamy, and John Rogers, Dr. Michael Cohan letter described it in 1979. In … Continue reading Rare Conditions |Proteus Syndrome 

“Smart Synthetic gel” provides glucose-responsive insulin delivery in diabetic mice

Main points    The technology capitalized on sugars responsiveness to properties of boronic acid. They created a synthetic polymer gel – based insulin delivery device with a single catheter. The catheter exhibits an artificial pancreas like function inside the body Subcut implantation of the device in healthy  and diabetic mice  creates a closed loop system that is composed of a continuous glucose sensing  and skin layer … Continue reading “Smart Synthetic gel” provides glucose-responsive insulin delivery in diabetic mice

Organic, grass fed and hormone-free: does this make red meat any healthier

Organic meat is grown without pesticides but there is little nutritional difference. Jez Timms Leah Dowling, Swinburne University of Technology and Louise Dunn, Swinburne University of Technology Red meat is an excellent source of protein and essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fats, which are are linked to heart and brain health. But while a small quantity of lean meat may … Continue reading Organic, grass fed and hormone-free: does this make red meat any healthier

Men get postnatal depression too, and as the mother’s main support, they need help

  Men also experience postnatal mental health and adjustment issues. from shutterstock.com Richard Fletcher, University of Newcastle; Jacqui Macdonald, Deakin University, and Louise Newman, University of Melbourne England’s National Health Service (NHS) this week announced it will offer mental health screening and treatment for new and expectant fathers whose partners are suffering from mental illness. The NHS described this as a “radical action to support … Continue reading Men get postnatal depression too, and as the mother’s main support, they need help

Tension as scientist at centre of CRIPSR outrage speaks at genome editing summit

  Jiankui He claims he has used CRISPR to edit the genomes of twin girls. Merlin Crossley, Author provided Merlin Crossley, UNSW I am currently at the Second International Summit on Human Genome Editing, where controversial CRIPSR scientist Jiankui He presented his research just a few hours ago. He also answered questions from gene experts Robin Lovell-Badge (Crick Institute) and Matt Porteus (Stanford), plus assembled … Continue reading Tension as scientist at centre of CRIPSR outrage speaks at genome editing summit