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Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System

Mental health presents legal issues when crimes are committed, especially when dealing with killing or murder. Under Commonwealth law in Australia, unsoundness of mind can be used as a defence to a criminal charge. Application of this law means that people who are charged with a crime cannot enter a plea or be found guilty because of a mental disorder.Instead, they become forensic patients. For the courts to determine mental … Continue reading Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System

Below is a List of some common words used in Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology words and meaning Metaplasia this is where one cell type is converted to another usually because of continues cells injury Dysplasia happens when the cells of an organ or tissue changes in size, shape, and arrangement, cytological similar to cancer and may proceed it Congenital – these are diseases that are present at birth; some congenital disease are related to disease during pregnancy Hyperplasia– Refers … Continue reading Below is a List of some common words used in Pathophysiology

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Should Medical Practitioners Help Patients Die?

 Defining words like Death and dying is currently a lot more complicated than in times past, this is largely due to advances in medicine. To help us understand the ethics surrounding assistive suicide, below are some general definitions. Death –  There are several definitions of death, medically this is the cessation of all vital bodily functions, and there are stages, a person can be brain-dead but … Continue reading Should Medical Practitioners Help Patients Die?

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News Digest |Study finds Gastric Bypass increases risk of Bone Fractures and falls

A study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research shows that there is a 30 per cent increase in the risk of fractures after a gastric bypass operation. The study also discovered that falls increase after these operations as well. “Gastric bypass is a well-established method that has proven effective in reducing obesity, diabetes and mortality, so naturally our findings do not mean … Continue reading News Digest |Study finds Gastric Bypass increases risk of Bone Fractures and falls

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The complexities of Prosecuting War time Sexual Violence

photo credit ICTY. Rape as the spoil of war can be seen throughout history, sexual violence during the war is often committed with the intention of terrorising the population, break up families, and in some cases, it is done with the intention of changing the ethnic makeup of the next generation. Rape is also used to deliberately infect women with HIV or render women from some minority groups … Continue reading The complexities of Prosecuting War time Sexual Violence

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WHY DOES CHILD MARRIAGE HAPPEN?

photo credit, Zambian daily mail According to World Vision, Zambia has the highest rates of child marriages in the world, by the age of 18, 42% of the women between the age of 20-24 years were married. Currently, Zambia is ranked 16th among countries with the highest rates of child marriages in the world. The current marriage act has established a legal age for marriage, and … Continue reading WHY DOES CHILD MARRIAGE HAPPEN?

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Rare Conditions |Proteus Syndrome 

Proteus syndrome  Commonly known as elephant man syndrome, Proteus syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by an overgrowth of bones, skin, and tissue. The organs affected grow un-proportional. The condition is named after a Greek sea-god Proteus known to change its shape. Proteus syndrome was first described by Drs Samia Temtamy, and John Rogers, Dr. Michael Cohan letter described it in 1979. In … Continue reading Rare Conditions |Proteus Syndrome 

“Smart Synthetic gel” provides glucose-responsive insulin delivery in diabetic mice

Main points    The technology capitalized on sugars responsiveness to properties of boronic acid. They created a synthetic polymer gel – based insulin delivery device with a single catheter. The catheter exhibits an artificial pancreas like function inside the body Subcut implantation of the device in healthy  and diabetic mice  creates a closed loop system that is composed of a continuous glucose sensing  and skin layer … Continue reading “Smart Synthetic gel” provides glucose-responsive insulin delivery in diabetic mice

Organic, grass fed and hormone-free: does this make red meat any healthier

Organic meat is grown without pesticides but there is little nutritional difference. Jez Timms Leah Dowling, Swinburne University of Technology and Louise Dunn, Swinburne University of Technology Red meat is an excellent source of protein and essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fats, which are are linked to heart and brain health. But while a small quantity of lean meat may … Continue reading Organic, grass fed and hormone-free: does this make red meat any healthier

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A closer look at Drug Addictions and Suicide in Perth

The Statistics  Methamphetamines numbers have tripled in the past five years, from about 90,000 to 268,000 regular and dependent methamphetamine users The result of the study was based on the number of people seeking treatment The number of users between the age of 15 and 24 has more than doubled  from 21,000 regular users to 59,000 regular users Accidental deaths involving Meth have increased sharply  since 2010, … Continue reading A closer look at Drug Addictions and Suicide in Perth

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Traditional Practices that have to stop | Breast Ironing

Breast Ironing is a practice performed by a mother, the breast of a girl going through puberty is pounded using tools such as spatulas, grinding stones, hot stones, and hammers. This is done to delay the girl’s development and to protect them from rape and other unwanted male attention. It is estimated that one in four girls in Cameroon suffer because of breast ironing. And while the practice … Continue reading Traditional Practices that have to stop | Breast Ironing

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Why is finding a cure for HIV so hard?

What causes HIV? HIV/AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency disease which is caused by a virus that is transmitted when there is a transfer of bodily fluids from an infected person. The most common form of transmission is through having unprotected sex and the sharing of needles with an infected person; the people most at risk of this are injection drug users and sex workers. HIV can also be … Continue reading Why is finding a cure for HIV so hard?

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Classifications of Personality Disorders

Patterns of thinking, feeling or behaviour that are persistent across time and situation.The result of the genetic template and outside influences. Expression of individuals characterise lifestyle methods and relating to others. Relates to personal identity and traits People with personality disorders perceive the world from a different perspective than most people Personality disorders are maladaptive patterns of thinking feeling and behaviours that are expressed in lifestyle … Continue reading Classifications of Personality Disorders

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Malignant Hypertension

The word malignant, when applied to hypertension, describes a syndrome in which organ malfunction and damage to the tissue happens in widespread areas of the body. If malignant hypertension is not treated aggressively, it can progress to a catastrophic event that nearly always has a fatal outcome (Oczek, 1976). Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure, there are a number of factors that contribute … Continue reading Malignant Hypertension

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The Cardiac Conduction System

There are four main components of the conducting system of the heart, these are the SA node, AV node, the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibres. Also, we have subcomponents called the tracts and branches, each of these components have specialised cells that are able to conduct electrical impulses.   Sinoatrial Node ( SA node) This is the first primary pacemaker of the heart and … Continue reading The Cardiac Conduction System

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The Explainer | How does the Body Control Breathing?

The three physiological functions that are responsible for adequate tissue and cellular oxygenation are: Pulmonary gas exchange Oxygen delivery Oxygen consumption The respiratory system helps gas exchange through the process of ventilation, diffusion and perfusion for the uptake of oxygen and helps with the removal of carbon dioxide from the body. Functionally the respiratory system consists of the functional zones and the conducting zones, namely … Continue reading The Explainer | How does the Body Control Breathing?

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The Explainer | Types of Heart Failure

The human circulatory system is a two-part system, whose purpose is bringing blood rich in oxygen to the tissue and the body. When the heart contracts it pushes the blood out into two significant loops or cycle. In the systemic loop, the blood circulates into the blood system, bringing oxygen to all the organs, and tissues and collecting carbon dioxide waste. In the pulmonary circuit, … Continue reading The Explainer | Types of Heart Failure

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Analysis | Why Loneliness is Killing You

Loneliness is thought to affect nine million people in the UK. It is estimated that around 200,00 older adults have not had a conversation with a friend or relative in over a month. About half of people aged 75 and over live alone, and 85% of young disabled adults feel lonely, and many can go day and even weeks without any social interaction. A third … Continue reading Analysis | Why Loneliness is Killing You

The Nervous system | Questions and Answers

Compare the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system The sympathetic nervous system primary process is to stimulate the flight or fight response. It is consistent at the basic levels to maintain homeostasis; it is thought to be complementary to the parasympathetic nervous system.  There are two types of neurons that are responsible for the sympathetic nervous system we have the preganglionic and postganglionic. The shorter … Continue reading The Nervous system | Questions and Answers

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Traditional Practices that have to Stop | Female Genital Mutilation

Female circumcision or FGM is an ancient tradition that was and is still being practised in many parts of Africa, it is a non-therapeutic surgical modification of the Vagina (Yirga, Kassa, Gebremichael, & Aro, 2012). For a very long time, the Maasai people in Kenya, Tanzania, and parts of Nigeria have been circumcising women just to prevent them from enjoying sex. Other reasons given for supporting FGM … Continue reading Traditional Practices that have to Stop | Female Genital Mutilation

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The complexities of Information and Consent in Health

  The rule in medicine is that for a patient to agree to any medical treatment or care the patient has to be well-informed. The doctors or the nurses in charge of providing care should not withhold any information that could change the mind of the patient. As this could be grounds for a negligence lawsuit. For example Rodgers V Whitaker, this is a case where Maree … Continue reading The complexities of Information and Consent in Health

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Effects of Fatherlessness on Children’s Development

Figures from 2012, show there were 961 thousand single parent homes, which is 15% of the Australian population. About 67% of them had dependants living with them, of the 961 single-parent families, 780 where single mothers making up the majority of the single parent population. In the United States, the prevalence of single mothers is partly due to the growing trend of children born outside marriage. Figures … Continue reading Effects of Fatherlessness on Children’s Development

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The Impact of the ageing population on the Health care System

In Australia, the average age as of 2016 is 37 years and this number is expected to rise over the next few decades. The average life expectancy in Australia is 82 years, in the UK it is 81 and USA it is 78 years. The World Health Organisation estimates that the number of people aged 65 and older is expected to reach 1.5 billion by 2050.  With … Continue reading The Impact of the ageing population on the Health care System

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Weight-bearing leg exercises send signals to the brain that are important for the production of Healthy Neural cells | Study Finds

  A new study published on the 23rd of may 2018 in Sciencedaily.com indicates that exercise and in particular weight-bearing leg exercises send signals to the brain that are important for the production of healthy neural cells.  The results of the study have wide-ranging implication in the way we study the brain the nervous system and muscles. According to the researchers, the results of the study … Continue reading Weight-bearing leg exercises send signals to the brain that are important for the production of Healthy Neural cells | Study Finds

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Homer Simpson’s Guide to The Male Reproductive System

The Male reproductive system has four regions – gonads duct system, accessory glands and the penis. The gonads are the testes, this is the site for sperm formation (spermatogenesis). The testis is located outside the body in the scrotum. Embryological the testes develop within the abdomen and usually descend about seven months during the foetal development and if they do not descend a condition called … Continue reading Homer Simpson’s Guide to The Male Reproductive System

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STAGES OF MITOSIS AND MIOSIS

MITOSIS  Growth and repair, the cells in adults that don’t undergo mitosis are NEURONS and the sperms and the ova. Most of the time the cells are in interphase where DNA is uncoiled and is known as chromatin. Mitosis and meiosis are a continuous process Two daughter cells that are identical The first stage of MITOSIS is the duplication of the DNA genetic material, and … Continue reading STAGES OF MITOSIS AND MIOSIS

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Repair, Healing and Regenaration of cells.

Any injury that causes the cells to die will elicit and inflammatory response. This is to remove the debris of the dead cells and the source of the injury. Inflammation can be acute or chronic, but whatever type, phagocytic cells and blood proteins move to the area of infection. The response is dependant on both vasoactive and chemotactic messengers from the site of injury, and these … Continue reading Repair, Healing and Regenaration of cells.

Is it Delirium or is it Dementia?

 Delirium is defined as a sudden severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function that happen with physical and mental illness. It is a clinical syndrome or a set of symptoms and not a disease. It is one of the oldest forms of mental disorder that has been known in medical history. Studies indicate that 32-67% of delirious patients go into hospital undiagnosed. Delirium can be … Continue reading Is it Delirium or is it Dementia?

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Cocaine use alters gene expression in brain reward circuits study finds

A study published in the journal of biological psychiatry has reviewed unique genetic changes in the brain reward pathways in brains associated with cocaine use. This includes mice brains of first time users, mice withdrawing from the drug and mice being re-exposed to the drug after not using for a period of time. The findings of the study provide unique insight into how cocaine affects … Continue reading Cocaine use alters gene expression in brain reward circuits study finds

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Study Finds BPA can induce multigenerational effects on Ability to Communicate

A study done by the University of Missouri has found Bisphenol A (BPA) can induce multigenerational effects on the ability to communicate. The study is consistent with previous other studies that found that biparental care of offspring can be affected negatively when female and males are exposed to BPA. Other studies have not specifically characterised how long-term effects of exposure in grandmothers and grandfathers might … Continue reading Study Finds BPA can induce multigenerational effects on Ability to Communicate

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Drug Metabolism and Absorption

The rate and degree of blood and absorption into the blood is dependent on the route of administration. Effective absorption from the oral route depends on both the chemical properties of the drug and the functional efficacy of the GI tract. Parenteral absorption is dependant on the extent of blood supply. The bioavailability of a drug is the most critical part of pharmacokinetics. Bioavailability is … Continue reading Drug Metabolism and Absorption

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A Beginners’ guide to Sex Determination and Differentiation

In humans as well as other species we can see some obvious differences between males and females. Differences such as the development of a penis or vagina, muscle mass, body size, the distribution of fat and the amount of distribution of body hair are all the differences that can be observed. These differences are a result of a long chain of events that begin during … Continue reading A Beginners’ guide to Sex Determination and Differentiation

Embryology| From Implantation to Birth

Last time we looked at how you get from a single cell to a multicellular organism. This time we will look at the events that happen from Implantation to Birth. Implantation – syncytiotrophoblast continues to grow in the stroma of the endothelium, a small space begins to appear in the inner cell mass, and the Cytotrophoblast begins to form the amniotic cavity. Cytotrophoblast begins to form a membrane … Continue reading Embryology| From Implantation to Birth

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The Clotting Process

When the skin is penetrated or simply cut, some processes begin to seal the injury site, thereby preventing blood loss. Haemostasis is the process is that the body has to prevent blood loss, it has three stages, vascular, platelet and coagulation phases. Vascular Phase. When the blood vessels are cut the smooth muscles of the blood vessels contract in the area of the damage. The aim … Continue reading The Clotting Process

Brain Tumor: Types, Symptoms, and Causes

Originally posted on Medical Treatment and Surgery:
Our brains are the seat of all we are. Every thought and action we perform is an output of our brain. So understandably the thought of an affliction striking the brain can be terrifying. Brain cancer is a rare but devastating form of cancer accounting for 2% of all cancer cases worldwide. Brain cancer refers to the abnormal growth… Continue reading Brain Tumor: Types, Symptoms, and Causes

A Brief History of Justice

This an excellent summary of the history of the many theories of Justice, the book looks at the impact ancient philosophers like Aristotle had in contributing to the ideas of justice. The book covers all the way to the modern conception of justice from thinkers like Jeremy Bentham and Immanuel Kant. A perfect gift for that one strange person in the family.  I thoroughly enjoyed this book, the … Continue reading A Brief History of Justice

How chemotherapy works

Chemotherapy works by killing cancer cells and has different effects on different types of cancer. Find out how it works and the different ways you might have chemotherapy. How chemotherapy kills cancer cells Chemotherapy circulates throughout your body in the bloodstream. So it can treat cancer cells almost anywhere in the body. This is known as systemic treatment. Chemotherapy kills cells that are in the process of … Continue reading How chemotherapy works